초음파 감지 센서
참조 : http://www.hobbyengineering.com/specs/DIY-k49.pdf
제목 : 초음파 감지 센서
로봇에서 움직임을 감지하는 초음파 센서이다.
초음파 송신은 크리스털 발진 출력을 증폭하여 초음파 센서로 출력한다.
송신용 초음파 센서는 T로 표시되고, 수신용은 R로 표시되어 있다.
전지는 9V를 사용한다. 최대로 15V를 입력할 수 있다.
회로에는 7805를 사용하여 5V로 만들어 IC 전원으로 사용한다
이 회로는 문이 열리거나, 사람의 움직임을 검출한다.
검출하는 감도는 가변저힝으로 설정한다.
The transmitter sends out a steady ultrasonic tone at 40kHz.
At this frequency the wavelength is about 6 mm.
Any reflected sound is detected by ultrasonic receiver.
The signal is then amplified by IC1:A and IC1:B. IC1: A is selfbiasing via C2 & R5.
The time constant of the first amplifier is set to let the 40kHz signal through.
Between the first & second amplifier there is a negative peak detector (diode D1 & R8)
which follows the envelope of the 40kHz signal.
If there is no movement the envelope is just a straight line.
The time constant of IC1:
B is much slower so that it will follow this envelope.
All the amplifiers are AC coupled to prevent DC bias problems.
Then the signal is fed through a window detector IC1:
C which detects both positive and negative pulses.
When there is no movement the potential at pin 7 sits at half the supply potential
and neither D2 or D3 can conduct.
The potential at pin 8 is low.
If the signal rises D3 conducts causing the output to go high.
If the signal falls then D2 conducts which also causes the output to go high.
Thus the name window detector circuit because it detects potentials
which move both below and above a given range.
A low pass filter screens out unwanted spurious signals,
then an amp IC1:D set up as a monostable flip flop converts any signal
that gets through the filter into a substantial pulse to turn on the BC639.
This turns on the LED and provides a Signal Out to drive a separate relay
or any other device you may wish to signal to.
The time constant of the monostable flip-flop is about half a second
and is set by C8 & R10.
D4 is used to separate the charge & discharge time constants.
It lets the circuit switch on immediately movement is detected
but allows about a 1/2 second delay for the reset.
Resistors: carbon film, 5%
47R R17 1
1K brown black red R6 R20 2
2K2 red red red R4 1
10K brown black orange R13 R16 R19 3
100K brown black yellow R1 R2 R15 3
150K brown green yellow R22 1
220K red red yellow R5 1
1M Brown black green R8 R9 R10 R14 4
1M2 brown red green R12 R11 2
10M brown black blue R3 R7 R18 R21 4
Trimpot 1M 1
100nF monoblock (104) C1 C10 2
100pF monoblock (101) C5 1
10nF (103) ceramic C2 C6 C7 3
33pF ceramic C11 C12 2
100 uF electrolytic C9 1
470 nF (474) monoblock C3 C4 C8 3
Diode 1N4002/4 D5 1
Diode 1N4148 D1 2 3 4 4
9V battery snap 1
40kHz crystal 1
78L05 voltage regulator 1
14049 hex buffer IC IC2 1
LM324 IC IC1 1
14 pin IC socket 1
16 pin IC socket 1
40kHz Ultrasonic Tx/Rx pair 400ST/R160 1
Kit 49 PCB 1
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