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 Sensor Applications
센서 자료실
작성자 leeky        
작성일 2006/04/06
첨부#1 tcs230_Color_Soting.pdf.zip (0KB) (Down:67)
Link#1 detail.asp?product_id=30054 (Down:34)
ㆍ추천: 0  ㆍ조회: 618   
  TCS230 색상검출 평가키트
 

분류 : 부품 판매 - 센서
품명 : TCS230 Color Sensor Evaluation Kit
가격 :  $79.00
무게 : 0.2 lb.

-설명:  
TCS230 센서 모듈 세트는 TCS230 RGB 센서칩, 백색 LED, 집광렌즈,
응용모듈 기판과 연결 케이블을 포함하는 완전한 색상 검출기로 구성되었다.
이것은 어떤 BASIC Stamp로 쉽게 인터페이스된다.
응용모듈 소켓 혹은 직접 연결된 어느 한쪽이라도,
가시 색상범위 한계 가까이 검출하고 측정할 수 있다.
색선을 따라가는 로봇, 색을 고르는, 색을 맞추는 응용을 포함한다.

-TCS230 색상 응답
 

TCS230은 적,녹,청 그리고 투명필터들 중 하나로 광검출기 배열을 가진다,
하나의 색상필터는 위치에 따라 쏠린 색상을 제거하는 어레이를 통해서 균등하게 분산시킨다.
소자의 내부는 선택된 색상의 밝기에 비례하는 직각파형 출력의 발진기이다.
좀더 상세한 안내를 위한 아래의 색상일치 데모 자료를 읽어라.

-TCS230 모듈의 회로
 

-하드웨어 지침
TAOS TCS230 자료에 포함된 재료없이는 TCS230 센서 모듈을 완전히 세팅하는 기술적 타협은 없다.    
만일 이 자료가 없다면, 타오스 웹 사이트에서 재미있게 내려받는다.
TCS230은 하나는 적,녹,청 필터 혹은 투명필터의 광검출기 어레이를 가진다.
하나의 색상필터는 위치에 따라 쏠린 색상을 제거하는 어레이를 통해서 균등하게 분산시킨다.

소자의 내부는 선택된 색상의 밝기에 비례하는 직각파형 출력의 발진기이다.
그곳은 이 발진기로 부터 선택된 tri-state 가능한 한개의 출력이다.  
그리고 색상을 읽기는 2개의 주소로 선택된다.
추가해서, 추가된 S0과 S1의 2선을 쓰면 발진기의 분주비 프로그램이 가능하다
그들 제어선의 세팅과 그들의 기능은 아래에 요약되었다.

S0/S1/ 분주기 ------- S2/S3/색상
0/ 0/ 전원끄기 ------- 0/ 0 / 적
0/ 1/ 1:50 --------- 0/ 1/ 청
1/ 0/ 1:5 ---------- 1/ 0/ 투명
1/ 1/ 1:1 ---------- 1/ 1/ 녹

응용모듈 기판의 TCS230 칩의 데이터와 제어선들은
BASIC Stamp 포트핀을 통해 거의 직접적으로 호출된다.
단 BASIC Stamp로 부터 A0와 EN을 사용하는 케이블 콘넥터를 위해
디코드된 /OE(출력 허가)선은 제외된다. 추가해서,  
한개의 센서모듈의 /OE 선은 LED의 enable을 게이트할 것이다.
그래서 기판의 LED는 출력이 금지되면 켤수 없다.

만일 출력선에 2개의 센서 모듈이 연결되는 것을 방지하려면
병렬로 된 LED는 2개의 세트로 부터 일어나는 drain 전류의 초과를 방지한다.
BASIC Stamp 포트 정의는 다음의 표이다.

신호/ 초기 BS2핀/ 옵션
EN/ P1/
A0/ P2/
S0/ P3/ N.C
S1/ P4/ N.C
S2/ P5
S3/ P6
/LED/P7/N.C
OUT/ P8/ P11

The "options" listed above are available at J2 and J3 on the AppMod board.
By cutting the traces at J2 for S0 and S1,  these two signals will default "high",
or they may be strapped to different levels at J1 on the sensor module.
Cutting the /LED trace will default the LEDs "on" whenever the sensor module is selected.
Cutting these traces will free up P3, P4, and P7 for other purposes.
Additionally, if  P8 is used elsewhere, OUT may be switched to P11
by cutting the trace on J3 and jumpering the center pin to the other outside pin.

-디코딩 논리를 아래에 보여준다
 

The sensor module may also be operated without the AppMod adapter.
In this case, the TCS230 signal /OE is controlled directly rather than
through the address decoding logic shown above.
LED "on" is still conditioned upon /OE being active low,however.
Also, even though the TCS230 chip is capable of operation from 2.7 to 5.5V supplies,
the module's VDD must be a regulated +5.0VDC.

-TCS230 일치된 색상보기
 

Taos 사이트 바로가기
http://www.taosinc.com/
Taos의 TCS230 자료 사이트로 바로가기
http://www.taosinc.com/product_detail.asp?cateid=11&proid=12

Identifying color is easy with the new Texas Advanced Optical Systems
(www.taosinc.com) TCS230 frequency to color sensor.
This is a high-sensitivity low-noise light-to-voltage optical converter
that incorporates on board blue, green, and red optical filters.
The sensor combines a photodiode and an amplifier on a single monolithic CMOS integrated circuit
with a color filter over the photodiode.
 

BASIC Stamp2 Module,
Board of Education programming board (#28150),
TCS230 Color Sensor (#30054)

Reading the sensor is a matter of enabling the device,
selecting the color to read by configuring two bits and counting for 10 ms on the I/O pin.
The TCS230 outputs a frequency that is proportional to the 8-bit value of R,G, or B.
The following example shows how to read the TCS230’s red value:

TCSS0 CON 15
TCSS1 CON 14
TCSS2 CON 11
TCSS3 CON 12
OE CON 13
TCSFreq CON 10
Red VAL byte

‘ Measure Red Value
Start:
LOW TCSS2
LOW TCSS3
COUNT TCSFreq,10,Red
DEBUG Home, ”Red =”, dec Red

For more information on the above topic, view the below references:
Color Classification TCS230
http://www.taosinc.com/downloads/pdf/DN11_Color.pdf

For more information on the above topic, view the below references:
Color Sensing with the TAOS Inc TCS230 (PDF file)
http://www.taosinc.com/downloads/pdf/tcs230wp.pdf

Color Classification with the TCS230
Identifying and Sorting Colors by Hue – Part 1
Contributed by Jack Berlien 3/4/04

소개
A common requirement in the field of color sensing is t
hat of color identification, or sorting of objects by color.
Typically this type of application is simpler than
a general-purpose color measurement application,
since all we are interested in is identifying
which of a predefined list of categories a color belongs.

The TCS230 is an RGB color sensor capable of making high-resolution color measurements
using the three values obtained from its red, green, and blue sensors.

For this application we will use the TCS230 to perform what color classification,
or the matching of an unknown color to one of a set of known colors.
This technique can be used in applications such as LED sorting and testing,
industrial sorting and identification,
process control in labeling and printing machines, etc.

In this two-part application note we will examine two variations
on the theme of color classification. In the first example,
Part 1 of the application note, we will classify an unknown color,
in this case an LED, into one of several pre-defined hues.
In the second example, Part 2, we will determine the best match
of an unknown color to one of several previously sampled colors.

Classification by Hue
When we think of a color, we typically think in terms of one
of the general color names such as red, yellow, green
or blue roughly speaking, hue (to be defined later).
A common task in color sensing is to identify an unknown color
as falling into one of these general categories.

This is relatively easy for a person with normal color vision to do,
given that we have a vocabulary of color names
that conjure reasonably consistent perceptions among different individuals.
In fact, eleven basic color names have been identified:
white, gray, black, red, yellow, green, blue, orange, purple, pink, and brown.
Most or all colors can be described
in terms of variations and combinations of these colors.

In order to quantify a color, however,
we need to use one of the several color specification systems
that have been developed for this purpose.
There are many systems in use today,
each having its own advantages in different applications and industries.
For our purpose, a convenient system to use is hue, saturation, luminance (or value).

An Overview of Color Specification
Due to the fact that human color vision is accomplished
in part by three different types of cone cells in the retina,
it follows that three values are necessary
and sufficient to define any color
(for more information on color vision and perception, please refer to
“Basics of Light and Color” available on the TAOS website).
These three values can be thought of as coordinates of a point
in three-dimensional space, giving rise to the concept of colo space.

Hue, saturation, luminance (HSL) is one such color coordinate system,
or color space, and is convenient for use in this application for a couple of reasons.
First, the TCS230 outputs color information in terms of red, green, and blue (RGB) values,
and it is a fairly simple task to convert RGB values to HSL values.
Second, once we have HSL values,
it is a simple matter to examine the hue (H) value
to determine the hue of the unknown color.

HSL Color Coordinate System
As previously mentioned, the three photo-sensing elements
in the TCS230 provide such a set of three signals in the form of R, G, and B.
The three elements have spectral responses weighted
in the red, green, and blue portions of the spectrum, respectively.
While useful in performing color comparisons, monitoring color consistency,
or performing color matching using a lookup table,
these values are not very useful from a human-readable standpoint,
as hue is not readily apparent upon inspection of a set of arbitrary RGB values.

These RGB values can be converted to HSL, which is more intuitive
for interpretation by a user.
Hue is associated with the dominant wavelength of a color, and is described
by standard color names such as red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta.
Saturation describes the degree of colorfulness;
a color becomes less saturated as it becomes more gray or white.

Luminance describes the brightness of a represented as a conical diagram
in which hue is represented by a value ranging from 0 to 1, c
orresponding to an angle from 0 to 360 around the perimeter of the cone.
Note that actual hue values “wrap around” from 0.999 to 0.000.
Saturation is represented as the diameter of the cone,
and Luminance is the height of the cone (Figure 1).
Also shown in Figure 1 is a color representation of the hue circle obtained
by taking a slice through the cone in the HSL diagram.
Note that the colors become less saturated toward the center of the circle.
The hue circle is shown at maximum luminance. 
 

An algorithm for converting RGB to HSL is implemented below
in BASIC code (see Appendix A for C code version):

Public Sub ToHSL(Red as Single, Green as Single, Blue as Single)
‘Convert RGB (in range 0 to 1) to HSL (in range 0 to 1)

Dim fmin As Single, fmax As Single
fmax = Max(Max(Red, Green), Blue)
fmin = Min(Min(Red, Green), Blue)
Luminance = fmax

If fmax > 0# Then
Saturation = (fmax – fmin) / fmax
Else
Saturation = 0
End If

If Saturation = 0# Then
Hue = 0#
Else
If Red = fmax Then
Hue = (Green – Blue) / (fmax – fmin)
ElseIf Green = fmax Then
Hue = 2# + (Blue – Red) / (fmax – fmin)
Else
Hue = 4# + (Red – Green) / (fmax – fmin)
End If

Hue = Hue / 6#
If Hue < 0# Then Hue = Hue + 1#
End If
End Sub

Private Function Min (x As Single, y As Single) As Single
If x < y Then
Min = x
Else
Min = y
End If
End Function

Private Function Max (x As Single, y As Single) As Single
If x > y Then
Max = x
Else
Max = y
End If
End Function

Classification By Hue LED Testing
A wide variety of colors of LEDs are available today
and are widely used on printed circuit (PC) boards
and in systems as a means of conveying some type of information
about the operation of the system to the user.

In these and many other applications,
it is critical that the proper color of LED be installed in its intended location.
Complicating this requirement is the fact that most LEDs are not marked or symbolized,
and many are molded in clear plastic, giving no visual indication of the emitted color.
Thus it is relatively easy and common to have the incorrect LED installed in a given location.

Therefore testing or verification of the LED color has become a requirement
in many PC board final test operations.
The TCS230 provides an economical and easy-to-implement means
of checking both the intensity and color of an LED.
Relative intensity of the LED can be measured directly using the clear channel of the TCS230.
Color can be determined using the HSL algorithm presented above.

For this example, several common and not-so-common LEDs were selected:
red, amber, green, aqua, blue, ultraviolet, and purple.

For measurement and data processing, the TCS230EVM (available from TAOS) was used.
The EVM consists of a lens module with white LED light source,
a controller board, and RS-232 interface to a PC-based host software application.

The software application converts the RGB values from the TCS230 to HSL values
and displays them on the screen in real-time.
For this experiment, the lens was removed exposing the TCS230,
and the light source was disabled.

The LED was positioned about one inch from the TCS230, shining directly on the sensor.
Hue values were recorded for each LED, and are shown plotted in Figure 2.
Note that in the HSL system, hue is independent of parameters such as LED position
and (for the most part) current through the LED.


Table 1 illustrates the constancy of hue as the current through a red LED is varied.
Therefore LED hue, or color, can be determined regardless
of intensity at which the LED is operating.
An LED, by nature, is a very saturated light source as verified
by the saturation values obtained,
which were above 0.95 for all the LEDs plotted in Figure 2
(except for purple – more on this later).

This is because an LED has a narrow spectral power distribution,
that is, the emitted light is concentrated around a narrow range of wavelengths.
A color can be made less saturated by mixing in other wavelengths, or colors, of light.
True white light, which is defined as an equal mixture of all wavelengths,
has a saturation of zero.

A unique case in LED testing is the white LED.
Many white LEDs today are manufactured
by applying a phosphor over a blue LED chip.
The phosphor absorbs the blue light from the LED
and re-emits light over a broad range of longer wavelengths,
creating a source that appears white. As suggested
by the above explanation of saturation,
the white LED has a low saturation value, 0.127,
since it is a mixture of many wavelengths of light.

The fact that the LED appears to have a slightly bluish tinge is confirmed
by the hue value, 0.58, placing it in the blue region of the hue circle.
In order to identify a white LED in testing,
saturation would have to be calculated along with hue.

Another unusual case was the purple LED.
It had a slightly lower saturation value than the standard LEDs, about 0.76.
As it turns out, this type of LED is also produced by placing a phosphor
over a blue LED, as with the white LED.
This explains the lower saturation value,
since the color is produced by a mixture of wavelengths. 
 

There are a couple of ways to set up the system to test and identify LEDs.
If the LEDs to be identified differ widely in color from each other,
such as red, green, and yellow it may be sufficient to configure a set of fixed ranges
to sort the hue values, as illustrated in the following BASIC code example:

Select Case Hue
Case Is >= 0.875, Is <= 0.1
LED_Color = "Red"
Case 0.1 To 0.25
LED_Color = "Yellow"
Case 0.25 To 0.5
LED_Color = "Green"
Case Else
LED_Color = "Other"
End Select

If there are several LEDs present that are similar in color,
or if several different colors are present,
it may be better to “teach” the system the correct values for each LED.
For example, representative samples of each LED would be measured,
and those hue values stored in non-volatile memory.
Then each unknown LED would be sampled,
and its value compared with the known values in memory and an error value calculated.
Then the best match is the one with the lowest error value.
A function is shown below that will calculate the best match using five stored values.
The fact that a hue value of 0.99 is very close to a hue value of 0,
that is hue values wrap around from 0.999 to 0, is handled by the first two IF statements.

Public Function LED_Color(Hue As Single) As String
Dim vData(1 To 2, 1 To 5) As Variant
'Set up the data for the example, by increasing hue value
‘Note – this array could have more or fewer elements, depending on required
‘hue resolution

vData(1, 1) = 0.006
vData(2, 1) = "Red"
vData(1, 2) = 0.225
vData(2, 2) = "Amber"
vData(1, 3) = 0.367
vData(2, 3) = "Green"
vData(1, 4) = 0.454
vData(2, 4) = "Aqua"
vData(1, 5) = 0.64
vData(2, 5) = "Blue"

Dim MinError As Single, ErrorVal As Single, KnownHue As Single
Dim i As Integer
MinError = 1 ‘Initialize error to a high value
For i = 1 To 5 ‘Change stop value to match number of hue values
KnownHue = vData(1, i)
ErrorVal = Hue – KnownHue
‘Multiple comparison criteria are needed to account for the fact that hue values
‘”wrap around” from 0.999 to 0

If ErrorVal < 0 Then ErrorVal = ErrorVal + 1
If ErrorVal > 0.5 Then ErrorVal = Abs(ErrorVal - 1)
If ErrorVal < MinError Then
MinError = ErrorVal
LED_Color = vData(2, i)
End If
Next
End Function

결론
The TCS230 can be used, along with some simple processing of RGB values,
to reliably determine the color of LED and other colored sources
by calculating the hue value, and then sorting according to hue.
For just a few colors widely differing in hue,
absolute hue sort ranges can be determined at design time and used reliably.

For systems that must distinguish from several hues,
or among similar hues, possible known values should be sampled (measured),
and stored by the system.
Then during test, the best match of an unknown sample
can be determined among the known possible hues.
The hue method only works well, however, for highly saturated color sources.

In part two of this application note,
we will examine a method to determine the best color match using all three values,
again by comparing against a set of known colors.

Appendix A : C Code for RGB to HSL Conversion
#define MAX(a, b) (((a) > (b)) ? (a) : (b))
#define MIN(a, b) (((a) < (b)) ? (a) : (b))

// convert RGB (in range 0 to 1) to HSL (in range 0 to 1)
void ToHSL(const float red, const float green, const float blue,
float& hue, float& saturation, float& luminance)

{
float fmax, fmin;
fmax = MAX(MAX(red, green), blue);
fmin = MIN(MIN(red, green), blue);
luminance = fmax;

if (fmax > 0)
saturation = (fmax - fmin) / fmax;

else
saturation = 0;

if (saturation == 0)
hue = 0;

else
{
if (fmax == red)
hue = (green - blue) / (fmax - fmin);

else if (fmax == green)
hue = 2 + (blue - red) / (fmax - fmin);

else
hue = 4 + (red - green) / (fmax - fmin);
hue = hue / 6;

if (hue < 0) hue += 1;
}
}
   
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32 Rich Caudle's capaciflector leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 264 0
31 Geiger Tube leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 376 0
30 Lynxmotion Infrared Proximity Detector leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 352 0
29 Low Power LED Flasher leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 424 0
28 백색 LED BLU 구동회로 leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 459 0
27 저전압 백색 LED 구동회로 leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 499 0
26 IR LED 송신회로 avrtools 2006/04/06 (목) 477 0
25 LED 총방사 광량의 측정 leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 391 0
24 자외선 측정센서의 교정 leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 341 0
23 UV센서 S9050의 데이터 leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 256 0
22 디지털 자외선 메터 leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 308 0
21 Simple Metal Detector leeky 2006/04/06 (목) 500 0
20 DS1820 온도센서 읽기 leeky 2006/04/04 (화) 554 0
19 RC5 적외선 리모콘의 신호처리 leeky 2006/02/17 (금) 649 0
18 NEC 적외선 리모콘의 전송규격 leeky 2006/02/17 (금) 538 0
17 MBI-6001 TRANSLESS LED DRIVER leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 377 0
16 PC로 제어하는 AD9850 DDS 신호발생기 leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 412 0
15 2400 Mhz test oscillator leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 445 0
14 DC BRUSHLESS FANS leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 533 0
13 RF mW Meter for SHF (2300MHz) leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 363 0
12 FET로 만드는 400W SSR leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 591 0
11 Scope2k4 소프트웨어 및 하드웨어 회로 leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 707 0
10 LTC1298를 사용한 PC 병렬포트용 ADC leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 369 0
9 0~14V 가변정전압, 0~2A 가변정전류 전원 avrtools 2006/02/14 (화) 506 0
8 ATV 1240-1300MHz 튜너용 PLL leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 257 0
7 1 Transistor FM Microphone leeky 2006/02/14 (화) 314 0
6 Helical Antenna Design Software leeky 2006/02/13 (월) 413 0
5 IRF510을 사용한 7MHz 출력10W 증폭기, PLL leeky 2006/02/13 (월) 463 0
4 MC34063A 설계용 계산기 avrtools 2006/02/13 (월) 447 0
3 RS232 신호 변환회로 leeky 2006/02/13 (월) 584 0
2 Sound card based multimeter Scope leeky 2006/02/13 (월) 731 0
1 2400MHz Helical Antenna Design leeky 2006/02/08 (수) 361 0
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